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Family Overview
Small winter stoneflies are named for the long, slender body of their aquatic larval form and for the fact that the adults emerge during the winter and can be seen walking on snow. Wing pads on this family do not diverge from the midline; and abdominal segments are separated by a membranous fold. Winter stoneflies are one of the largest families of stoneflies. The nymphs live in the flowing water beneath rocks and gravel in stream and river beds, and only come to surface when metamorphosing into their adult form.
Characteristics
POLLUTION TOLERANCE
Mid-Atlantic: 1 - 3
Upper Midwest: up to 2.8
Midwest: up to 3
Southeast: up to 0.2
0 = least tolerant, 10 = most tolerant
FEEDING HABITS
Shredder / Detritivore
MOVEMENT
Clinger
Sprawler
Media
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Diagnostic Characters
+ Expanded Character List
Order: Wings developing in wing pads. Mouthparts suitable for chewing. Gills digitiform and located near mouthparts, on neck, sides of thorax, or underside of base of abdomen, never on top or sides of abdomen. Two tarsal claws per leg. Only two tails (cerci).
Family: The body is small (~1/4 inch) and slender and without gills; the hind legs do not reach the end of the abdomen; the wing pads are about as long as wide; the abdomen is a little wider in the middle than at it anterior base.