“Aquatic Caterpillars, Snout Moths”
“Alderflies, Dobsonflies, and Fishflies”
“Dragonflies and Damselflies”
“Limoniid Crane Flies”
37 species in North America.
Southeast: 4.7 and higher
Upper Midwest: 2 and higher
Midwest: 2.3 and higher
Mid-Atlantic: 2 and higher
Engulfer / Predator
Widespread (east of the Rocky Mtns.)
Head Retracted in Thorax
Posterior Spiracles with Lobes
+ Expanded Character List
Order: Wings and wing pads absent. Eye spots sometimes visible, but compound eyes absent. Segmented legs absent, but sometimes fleshy prolegs present. Sometimes with distinct head, often without head or with head drawn deeply into thorax. Body flattened, cylindrical, or maggot-like.
Family: Mandibles moving against one another along an horizontal or oblique plane. Hardened head capsule always deeply retracted inside thorax; often with length-wise incisions of varying depths beginning at posterior margin of head, and extending forward; in extreme cases head consisting of only several slender rods (visible only via disection of thorax). Spiracles absent (apneustic) or with 1 pair at posterior end of body (metapneustic); posterior spiracles rimmed by 2–7 (usually 5) lobes often fringed with hair. Mature larvae usually 10–25 mm long.
Genus: swollen 7th segment of abdomen, spiracle plate usually 4, abdominal segments without creeping welts, blades of maxillae not projected from retracted head